ASCII art is the process of creating an image with only the use of text characters and symbols. The technique is similar to the newspaper halftone printing.
My Fonts provides a service, What the Font, where you can upload an image of some text and it will attempt to recognize the font and give your similar options.
Monospacing is when a font uses the exact same visual space for every character. Programmers love monospaced fonts because it makes it easy to organize code.